細節關乎生命 | 關於兒童出行安全,父母和長輩應該知道的

世界衛生組織2018-12-09 05:15:13

兒童出行安全,細節關乎生命 

       從孩子呱呱落地,Ta的安全、快樂和健康便是父母和看護者為之牽掛的。Ta的第一個笑聲、開口說的第一句話都是父母耳中的天籟之音;Ta的第一次跌倒、第一次哭泣都使每一位爸爸媽媽揪心不已。



       隨著孩子的成長,Ta們的活動範圍逐漸擴張,從而增加了Ta們遭受到傷害的可能性。傷害是全球範圍內導致兒童死亡的主要原因之一:其中,道路交通傷害尤為值得關注。



       全世界範圍內,道路交通傷害是18歲以下兒童死亡的四大原因之一:每年導致將近186,300名兒童死於道路交通碰撞,其中以兒童行人和兒童乘員受到的傷害佔比較大,由此我們可以從兒童步行和搭乘機動車出行兩大方面提升兒童出行安全:


  • 兒童行人:他們的身體、認知和社會發育有限,相較於成年人而言,他們更容易因為“看不見”而遭受到傷害;


  • 兒童乘員(機動車):幼童因其體型和體重發育不完全,在搭乘機動車時,針對成年人所設計的安全帶無法為兒童乘員提供有效的保護


兒童行人安全

       “看見”和“被看見”是提升兒童行人安全的兩大要素。相較於成年人而言,兒童的身材更矮小,“被看見”的機率較低,由此更容易因為“看不見”而遭受傷害。


       此外,幼童的視野也受限於不完善的身高,導致Ta們無法看清路況;除此之外,他們認知發育水平的不完善使他們很難判斷車輛的方向、距離和速度,從而增加了他們與機動車發生碰撞的可能性。


       作為幼童的監護人,建議時刻監督好兒童的交通行為:例如過馬路時緊緊牽著兒童,告訴孩子“紅燈停、綠燈行”;除此之外,還應為兒童穿戴有反光材質的衣物,提升孩童的“可見度”。


       “看見”和“被看見”同時具備,更安全。



兒童乘員安全

       數據顯示,正確使用兒童安全座椅可以將嬰兒道路交通事故死亡可能性降低70%,將幼兒道路交通事故死亡可能性降低至最高80%。



       安全帶是基於成年人的身高和體型所設計的,並不適用於兒童。專門針對不同年齡段嬰幼兒的身高、體重和年齡所設計的兒童安全座椅能夠通過限制其身體移動,減少物理慣性對其頭部、頸部和腰腹部造成傷害的可能性;還能防止兒童乘員因為物理衝擊力被拋出車身,受到嚴重傷害甚至致死的可能性。


       此外,今天是122全國交通安全日,今年的主題是“細節關乎生命,安全文明出行”。提升道路安全並不能僅靠某個部門或機構就能完成的,道路安全與每一個人都息息相關。一個無心之失也許就是一場悲劇,而一個微小的細節也許就能制止一次碰撞。



       世界衛生組織期望藉助今天的日子,邀請每一位道路交通參與者一同反思,如何通過改善自身行為提升自己以及他人的出行安全,做到“我的安全我做主,你的安全我守護”。


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Details Vital to Life

What Parents and Caregivers Should Know about Protecting Children while Traveling


Since a child is born, their safety, happiness and health are the key concerns of parents and caregivers. The first laugh and the first words sound like beautiful music to the parents’ ears; while the first fall and the first cry cause parents’ anxiety.



As children grow up, their space of activity is gradually expanding, thus increasing their possibility of being hurt. Injury is one of the main reasons for child mortality in the world; and among them, road safety injuries deserve special attention.



All over the world, road traffic injuries are one of the four main causes of death for children under 18 years old: taking away near 186,300 children’s lives each year, especially child pedestrians and child occupants in motor vehicles, who can sustain severe injuries:


  • Child pedestrians: due to the limitations of children’s body, cognition and social development, they are more vulnerable to injury compared with adults because of not being seen.


  • Child occupants of motor vehicles: due to the underdevelopment of body and weight, children cannot be as effectively protected by seatbelts alone in the vehicle, which are designed for adults.


Child pedestrian safety

“Seeing” and “being seen” are two components of improving child pedestrian safety. Because children are shorter than adults, it is less likely for them to be seen by drivers and easier to suffer from injury.


In addition, children’s range of vision is limited by their height, thus they cannot see the road conditions clearly; besides, their cognition and growth make it difficult for them to tell the direction, distance and speed of cars, thus resulting in possible crashes.


As a child’s guardian, we should pay attention to children’s road behaviors at all times: such as holding their hands tightly when crossing the roads and teaching them about the traffic lights. Furthermore, we should have children wear the clothes made of reflective materials, so as to increase their visibility.


When children can see and can be seen at all times, they are safer.



Child occupant safety

Data shows that the appropriate use of child restraints could reduce infant and child mortality in traffic crashes by 70% and up to 80%, respectively.


Seatbelts are designed based on the height and body of adults, thus not suitable for children. Child restraints that are designed for the height, weight and age of infants and children at different age groups, can limit physical impact thereby reducing the potential harm in case of crash to a child’s head, neck and waist; child restraints can also prevent occupants from being thrown from the vehicle due to impact force, or suffering from serious injury or even death.



Today is December 2nd, National Road Safety Day. This year’s theme is “details vital to life, travel safely and considerately”. Road safety cannot be ensured by only one department or one agency; it is closely linked to everyone. Attention to details could prevent a crash; and a careless mistake could cause an irretrievable tragedy.


World Health Organization invites every road user to consider how we can change our own behavior to improve road safety for ourselves and others.


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