哭了!歪果仁1英鎊就把咱乾隆國寶賣了?不識貨就還回來啊……

21世紀英文報2019-09-11 10:07:58

看到這個花瓶,你能猜出它大概是哪個朝代的嗎?



這豔麗的配色,這細密複雜的花紋,不少小夥伴一下子就能想到:是乾隆那會兒的吧!


 

畢竟,相比雍正的“小清新文藝風”,乾隆早就被網友吐槽過堪稱“農家樂”審美。

 


然而,對於大多數歪果仁來說,鑑別中國古董就有點兒困難了……


最近,英國發生了一件事,引來國內網友瘋狂吐槽:太不識貨了!


《每日郵報》:中國花瓶以1英鎊在慈善商店售出,卻被發現是價值8萬英鎊、18世紀乾隆皇帝時期的罕見珍寶

  

據英國《每日郵報》報道,英國一男子以1英磅(8.6元人民幣)的價格,從赫特福德郡的一家慈善商店買走一個花瓶,隨後他又以低廉的價格掛在eBay上。


A vase which sold for just £1 at a charity shop is now listed at £80,000 after it was revealed it was made for an 18th century Chinese emperor. 


The Qianlong Emperor's vase made its way to a store in Hertfordshire where it was picked up for £1 and then listed on eBay for a pittance.


然而,eBay網站上的大量報價,讓這位不願透露姓名的買家傻了眼……


他很快意識到,這隻黃色小花瓶遠比他預想的更值錢。


But the unnamed buyer soon realised it must be worth more than he was asking when he was inundated with offers for the tiny yellow vase.


於是,他把這隻花瓶送到了英國藝術和古董拍賣行斯沃德。拍賣行的工作人員告訴他,這隻花瓶其實是為中國皇帝乾隆(1735年-1796年在位)製作的。


He took it to Sworders Fine Art Auctioneers' in Stansted Mountfitchet, Essex, who told him the eight inch vase was made for the emperor who reigned from 1735 to 1796. 


 

拍賣行專家表示,花瓶上刻著乾隆皇家的花紋,意味著它並不是用來出口的,而是放置於皇帝的某座宮殿。


The Qianlong Emperor was the sixth Emperor of the Qing dynasty who reigned from 1735 to 1796, the family rose is marked upon the vase meaning it wasn't for export, but for one of the emperor's palaces.


瓶身刻有一首“乾隆御題”詩:“一瓣名香靜裡焚,篆煙縷縷白如雲。幽情未許旁人㑹,手自翻書到夕曛。” 



旁邊還有兩枚印章,一個寫著“乾隆宸翰”即“乾隆皇帝親筆”,另一個是“惟精惟一”,意即“用功精深、用心專一”(“be precise, be undivided”)。


 

It is inscribed with an imperial poem that "praises incense" and two iron-red seal marks that read "Qianlong chen han" or "the Qianlong Emperor's own mark". It also reads "Weijing weiyi" which translates to "be precise, be undivided".


這首御製詩名為《夏興三十首》(載於《御製樂善堂全集定本•卷三十》),是弘曆為皇子之寶親王時期作品。詩中細膩地描繪了一幅夏日青年弘曆於宮中品香的優雅情致。



這個梨形花瓶的設計獨特,其背面平整,可貼在牆上做裝飾,正面有花飾。  


The pear-shaped vase is designed to be attached to a wall, with a flat back and floral decoration on the front.


11月8日,斯沃德拍賣行將被委託拍賣這個花瓶,估價在5萬-8萬英鎊(43—69萬元人民幣)之間。


 

斯沃德的亞洲藝術部主管李業雪(音譯)說:“這位男士因為喜歡花瓶的外觀而在慈善商店買下了它。但他沒有意識到其重要價值,所以他以非常低的起拍價把它放到了eBay上,引起了很多人的興趣。”


Yexue Li, head of the Asian art department at Sworders, said: "The gentleman vendor was in the charity shop and picked out the vase because he liked the look of it. He was unaware of his significance so he put it on eBay with a very low starting price to begin with and there was a lot of interest."


“花瓶的釉上彩也很特別,因為是在黃色背景上用的洋彩,而黃色當時是皇帝的御用色。”


"The enamel on the vase is special because it uses yangcai (foreign) enamels on a yellow ground - a special colour traditionally reserved for the emperor."


這件事在微博上被爆出後,引來網友直呼:老外太不識貨了!




也有人又忍不住吐槽起了乾隆的審美……



不過,也有不少網友表示:國寶外流真的讓人痛心……


   

據中國文物學會統計,自1840年鴉片戰爭以來,因戰爭、不正當貿易等原因,有超過1000萬件中國文物流失到海外,幾乎涵蓋所有文物種類。而據聯合國教科文組織不完全統計,在全世界47個國家200多家博物館的藏品中,有164萬件中國文物,民間收藏的中國文物大約是館藏數量的10倍以上。


據《解放日報》報道,追索海外流失文物一直是世界性難題,1995年6月24日簽訂於羅馬的《國際統一私法協會關於被盜或者非法出口文物的公約》,明確規定50年前流失文物不可上溯追索,這使得我國只能聲明保留對歷史上被非法掠奪文物的追索權。


不過,近年來,我國不斷探索促成流失文物迴歸的多種途徑,逐步建立綜合使用外交斡旋、協商談判、執法合作、司法訴訟等方式的流失文物追索返還工作模式,成功促成了30餘批次近4000件套流失文物迴歸祖國,其中圓明園鼠首兔首、秦公晉侯青銅器、大堡子山金飾片等重要文物已先後入藏中國國家博物館、上海博物館、甘肅省博物館等。


在大量流失海外的中國文物中,有幾件大家比較熟悉……


圓明園十二生肖獸首銅像 


(2018年8月,圓明園十二生肖獸首中的四枚獸首“牛首、虎首、猴首、豬首”在廣東肇慶市展出。圖源:中新社)


圓明園十二生肖獸首銅像,原為圓明園海晏堂外的噴泉的一部分,是清乾隆年間的紅銅鑄像。1860年,英法聯軍入侵北京,火燒圓明園,十二獸首在英法聯軍的劫掠過後流散於海外。至今,十二獸首之中,八尊已經回國。蛇首、羊首、雞首、狗首仍然下落不明。


The animal heads symbolizing the 12 animal signs of the Chinese zodiac, including pig, ox, monkey and tiger, were originally water outlets, part of the fountain in the Old Summer Palace. 


圓明園青銅“虎鎣”


(Photo by Jiang Dong/China Daily)


圓明園青銅“虎鎣”為西周晚期文物,頂蓋內鑄有 "自作供鎣" 銘文,因其精美獨特的造型、罕見的虎形裝飾而具有重要的歷史、藝術和文化價值。相關資料顯示,青銅“虎鎣”原為清宮皇室舊藏,1860年被英國軍官哈利·埃文斯從圓明園劫掠獲得,此後一直由其家族收藏。


2018年4月,"虎鎣"在英國坎特伯雷拍賣行被拍賣,後來買家通過拍賣行聯繫國家文物局,表示希望將其無條件捐贈。2018年12月11日,這件約3000年曆史、於19世紀被掠走並流失英國的青銅器終於重回祖國,被移交給國家博物館。


A Chinese bronze vessel some 3,000 years old that was looted and taken to the UK in the 19th century has returned to its country of origin. It was transferred to the National Museum of China on December 11, 2018. The vessel, known as the Bronze Tiger Ying, was auctioned in April by Britain's Canterbury Auction Galleries. The buyer, through the auction house, contacted China's State Administration of Cultural Heritage later and expressed hope for an unconditional donation. 


Information shows the vessel, from the late period of the Western Zhou Dynasty (c. 11th century-771 BC) and once belonging to the royal family of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), was taken away by British military officer Harry Evans from the Old Summer Palace, which was sacked and destroyed in 1860 during the invasion of Anglo-French allied forces.


皿方罍 


 

("Min er quan" Fanglei ,Photo by Guo Liliang/Asianewsphoto)


皿方罍全稱“皿天全方罍”,為目前所見商周青銅罍中體量最大的一件器物,被譽為“方罍之王”。


1919年皿方罍出土於湖南桃源一個小山村,後器身被文物商人購得流失海外,自此身、蓋離散近九十年。2014年,湖南人用“眾籌”的方式,以2000餘萬美元洽購器身回國,最終讓國寶合體。


2018年,央視綜藝節目《國家寶藏》其中一期講述了“完罍歸湘”的故事,長達一個世紀的歸家路,感動了無數網友,並登上微博熱搜。


The "Min er quan" Fanglei is a bronze wine vessel unearthed in 1919 at Taoyuan county, Central China's Hunan province. The container, with varied carving techniques, impressed people with its elegance and solemnity and was thus hailed as "king of all fangleis". It was also considered a representative work of the Shang Dynasty (1600 BC-1046 BC), the peak of Chinese bronze culture.


Since its excavation in 1919, the two parts were separated for nearly a century. In 2014, the body was brought back to China from overseas and reunited with its lid.


據中國日報網報道,2019年4月24日,“歸來——意大利返還中國流失文物展”在國家博物館舉行開幕儀式。700餘件意大利返還中國的流失文物藝術品在國博首次展出,包括西漢彩繪繭形陶壺、唐代彩繪陶駱駝,以及宋代白釉刻花碗等。


The exhibition, titled "The Journey Back Home" showcases more than 700 pieces of returned Chinese artifacts, including a painted pottery pot from the Western Han Dynasty (202 BC - 8 AD), a colored camel pottery figurine from the Tang Dynasty (618-907) and a white-glazed bowl from the Song Dynasty (960-1279).


(Hundreds of Chinese cultural relics repatriated from Italy finally are made available for public viewing at the National Museum of China in Beijing. Photo by Jiang Dong/China Daily)


這批文物是2007年意大利蒙扎地區保護文化遺產憲兵隊在日常巡查的過程中發現的。大部分文物都在中國出土,並通過非法途徑流散到意大利。


中國國家文物局得知相關信息後,隨後展開了追索工作。經過十年的司法程序,意大利米蘭城市法院在2014年確認了中國政府對這些文物的所有權,並在2018年11月決定將796件文物返還中國。


China's National Cultural Heritage Administration filed papers seeking their return and, after a decade long judicial process, Italy's Milan City Court confirmed the Chinese government's ownership of the cultural artifacts in 2014 and made the final decision to return the 796 artifacts to China in November 2018.


 

(Photo by Jiang Dong/China Daily)


文化和旅遊部部長雒樹剛表示,此次文物返還,是中國流失文物追索返還工作中歷時最長的案例,也是近20年來最大規模的中國流失文物迴歸。


2015年6月,故宮發佈《故宮保護總體規劃2013-2025》,根據規劃,故宮博物院將建立流散文物清單,制定未來10年迴歸計劃。


據央視網報道,從上世紀80年代開始,我國文物保護立法不斷完善,通過執法合作、外交斡旋、司法訴訟、談判協商等多種方式,已經成功從英國、美國、法國、丹麥、加拿大、澳大利亞等國追索回了5000餘件流失文物。


More than 5,000 pieces of Chinese cultural relics have been repatriated from countries including Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, the United Kingdom and the United States, as result of efforts made by China such as law enforcement cooperation with other countries, lawsuits and negotiations.


只盼更多流落海外的國寶,早日回家!


(編輯:賽博碗


綜合來源:中國日報,人民網,澎湃新聞,每日郵報




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